This Day in History for 4th February

Historical Events

Events 1 - 100 of 207

211 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus dies, leaving the Roman Empire in the hands of his two quarrelsome sons, Caracalla and Geta.
960 - The coronation of Zhao Kuangyin as Emperor Taizu of Song, initiating the Song Dynasty period of China that would last more than three centuries.
1194 - 100,000 ransom is paid for Richard I, King of England
1454 - In the Thirteen Years' War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederation sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master.
1508 - Maximilian I assumes imperial title without being crowned
1586 - Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, becomes governor-general of the States General of the United Provinces (Netherlands)
1600 - Tycho Brahe & Johannes Kepler meet for first time near Prague
1620 - Prince Bethlen Gabor of Hungary signs peace with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II
1657 - Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, grants residency to Luis Caravajal
1697 - Three Dutch East India Company ships anchor at Dirk-Hartogeiland, Australia
English Military and Political Leader Oliver CromwellEnglish Military and Political Leader Oliver Cromwell 1699 - 350 rebellious Streltsi executed in Moscow
1703 - In Edo (now Tokyo), 46 of the Forty-Seven Ronin commit seppuku (ritual suicide) as recompense for avenging their master's death.
1782 - British garrison surrenders to French & Spanish fleet
1783 - Worst quake in 8 years kills some 50,000 (Calabria, Italy)
1784 - 1st unmanned balloon flight in Ireland
1787 - 1st Anglican bishops of NY & Pennsylvania consecrated in London
1787 - Shays' Rebellion (of debt-ridden Massachusetts farmers) fails
1789 - 1st US electoral college chooses Washington & Adams as President and Vice-President
1794 - French National Convention proclaims abolishment of slavery
1797 - Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador kills 41,000
1803 - William Dunlap adapts French melodrama "Voice of Nature"
1810 - Royal Navy seizes Guadeloupe.
1822 - Free American Blacks settle Liberia, West Africa
1824 - J W Goodrich introduces rubber galoshes to public
1846 - Mormons leave Nauvoo, Illinois, for settlement in the west
1847 - 1st US telegraph company established in Maryland
1849 - University of Wisconsin begins in 1 room with 20 students
1854 - Alvan Bovay proposes name "Republican Party", Ripon, Wisc
1855 - Soldiers shoot Jewish families in Coro, Venezuela
1859 - The Codex Sinaiticus is discovered in Egypt.
President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson DavisPresident of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis 1861 - Confederate constitutional convention meets for 1st time; Jefferson Davis elected President of Confederacy (US Civil War)
1864 - Skirmish at Big Black River Bridge, Mississippi
1865 - Hawaiian Board of Education formed
1865 - Robert E. Lee is named general-in-chief of Confederate forces
1866 - Mary Baker Eddy cures her injuries by opening a bible
1880 - Steele MacKay's "Hazel Kirke" premieres in NYC
1880 - The Black donnelly massacre. James (63), Johannah (56), John (32), Thomas (25) and Bridget (21) Donnelly are murdered in their home by members of the Vigilance Committee
1887 - Interstate Commerce Act authorizes federal regulation of railroads
1895 - 1st rolling lift bridge opens, Chicago
1899 - The Philippine-American War begins with fighting between American and Philippine revolutionary forces
1901 - Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Josef I, gives a speech condemning the demands of national groups and calls for economic and social reform
Squatter James DonnellySquatter James Donnelly 1903 - Stanley Cup: Montreal AAA beat Winn Victorias, 2 games to 1 & 1 tie
1904 - John Millington Synge's "Well of Saints" premieres in Dublin
1913 - Louis Perlman patents demountable auto tire-carrying wheel rim
1913 - National Institute of Arts & Letters founded
1914 - US Congress approves Burnett-anti-immigration law
1915 - Experiments to find cause of pellagra begin at Miss Penitentiary
1917 - Belgian Council of Flanders established
1919 - City of Bremen's Soviet Republic overthrown
1920 - 1st flight from London to South Africa takes-off (lasts 1½ months)
1922 - WGY-AM in Schenectady NY begins radio transmissions
1922 - After boycotts and international pressure, Japan agrees to return Shantung Province to China
1924 - 1st Winter Olympic games close at Chamonix, France
1924 - George Kelly's "Show-Off," premieres in NYC
1926 - Austrian chancellor Seipel wants to join Germany
1927 - KGA-AM in Spokane WA begins radio transmissions
1929 - Archie Jackson scores 164 in Test Cricket debut v England at Adelaide
1930 - 1st tieless, soundless, shockless streetcar tracks, New Orleans
1931 - National League adopts a deader baseball
1932 - 3rd Winter Olympic games open in Lake Placid, NY
1932 - Japanese troops occupy Harbin, Manchuria
1933 - -Feb 10] Crew of Dutch "7 Provinces" mutiny after pay cuts
1933 - German President Von Hindenburg limits freedom of the press
1936 - 1st radioactive substance produced synthetically (radium E)
1937 - Jim Margie, Philadelphia, bowls 900 in 3 (unsanctioned) games
1938 - "Our Town" by Thornton Wilder opens on Broadway
Dictator of Nazi Germany Adolf HitlerDictator of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler 1938 - Hitler seizes control of German army & puts Nazis in key posts
1938 - Disney's "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" is officially released
1939 - Glenn Cunningham (top miler) says 4-min mile beyond human effort
1941 - British tanks occupy Maus, Libya
1941 - Former Dutch premier De Geer flies to Berlin
1941 - United Service Organization (USO) founded
1942 - Clinton Pierce becomes 1st US general wounded in action in WW II
1943 - Bertolt Brecht's "Der gute Mensch von Sezuan" premieres in Zurich
1944 - Jean Anouilh's "Antigone" premieres in Paris
1944 - US 7th Infantry Division captures Kwajalein
Conference of the Big Three at Yalta (from left to right) Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph StalinConference of the Big Three at Yalta (from left to right) Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin

Soviet Union Premier Joseph StalinSoviet Union Premier Joseph Stalin 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin meet at Yalta in the Crimea to discuss the final phase of the war
1946 - Garson Kanin's "Born Yesterday" premieres in NYC
1948 - Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) declares independence from UK
1949 - Failed assassination attempt on Shah of Persia
1951 - US female Figure Skating championship won by Sonya Klopfer
1951 - US male Figure Skating championship won by Richard Button
1952 - 1st black executive of a major TV station (Jackie Robinson-WNBC NY)
1956 - AL plans to test automatic intentional walk during spring training
1957 - 1st electric portable typewriter placed on sale (Syracuse NY)
1958 - "Oh, Captain!" opens at Alvin Theater NYC for 192 performances
1958 - Hall of Fame fails to elect anyone for 1st time since 1950
1959 - Israel begins exporting copper ore
1960 - BBWAA voters fail to elect a new Hall of Fame member
Baseball Player Jackie RobinsonBaseball Player Jackie Robinson 1960 - Giants move their offices to Candlestick Park
1960 - Lionel Bart's musical "Fings ain't wot they used t'be" premieres
1961 - Sputnik 7 launches into Earth orbit; probable Venus probe failure
1962 - "Gay Life" closes at Shubert Theater NYC after 113 performances
1962 - Russian newspaper Izvestia reports baseball is an old Russian game
1962 - US female Figure Skating championship won by Barbara Roles
1962 - US male Figure Skating championship won by Monty Hoyt
1964 - FAA begins 6 month test of reactions to sonic booms over Oklahoma City
1965 - US performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site
1966 - All-Nippon Airways 727 crashes off Haneda Airport (Japan); kills 133
1967 - "Wild Thing" hits #20 on the pop singles chart by Senator Bobby

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 243

1465 - French van Brederode, leader of Hoeksen
1524 - Luis de Camões, Portugal's greatest poet (d. 1580)
1549 - Eustache du Caurroy, composer
1575 - Pierre de Barulle, French cardinal
1581 - Daniel Selich, composer
1620 - Gustaf Bonde, Swedish statesman (d. 1667)
1646 - Hans A Freiherr von Abschatz, Silesian poet
1677 - Johann Ludwig Bach, German composer (d. 1731)
1688 - Pierre De Marivaux, Paris France, writer (Marianne)
1693 - George Lillo, bourgeois English dramatist (London Merchant)
1725 - Dru Drury, English entomologist (d. 1804)
1746 - Tadeusz Kościuszko, Polish, Lithuanian and American National hero and general (d. 1817)
1751 - Blas de Laserna, composer
1758 - Pierre-Gabriel Gardel, French ballet dancer/choreographer
1764 - Carel H Verhuell, Dutch/French vice-admiral/minister of Navy
1767 - Johann Franz Volkert, composer
1768 - Maurits C van Hall, Dutch ruler of Heicop & Boeicop, lawyer/politician
1769 - Samuel I Wiselius, Dutch lawyer/businessman/writer
1778 - A. P. de Candolle, Swiss botanist (d. 1841)
1799 - Joao Batista da Silva Leitao de Almeida Garret, Portuguese playwright
1802 - Mark Hopkins, US, educator/philosopher (Williams College)
1805 - Georg Andreas Henkel, composer
1805 - William H Ainsworth, English writer (Old St Paul's, Rookwood)
1808 - Josef Kajetán Tyl, Czech playwright, author of the Czech national anthem(d. 1856)
1819 - Joshua Norton, SF, Norton I, emperor of USA
1826 - Halbert Eleazer Paine, Bvt Mjr Gen (Union volunteers), (d. 1905)
1831 - Oliver Ames, 35th Governor of Massachusetts (d. 1895)
1841 - Clément Ader, French aviation pioneer (d. 1926)
1842 - Georg Brandes, [Morris Cohen], Danish literary-historian/critic
1842 - Vasili O Klyutshevski, Russian historian
1846 - Nikolay Umov, Russian physicist (d. 1915)
1848 - [Francois-Victor-]Jean Aicard, Fren playwright/poet (Jeune Croyances)
1849 - Jean Richepin, French poet/writer (Les Chansons de Gueux)
1859 - Timofei Mikhailov, Russian revolutionary, member of Narodnaya Volya (d. 1881)
1865 - Charles Bally, Swiss linguist (Le langage et la vie)
1868 - Constance Gore-booth Markiewicy, Irish patriot/playwright/MP
1871 - Friedrich Ebert, German politician, 1st Reichspräsident of the Weimar Republic (d. 1925)
1872 - Gotse Delchev, a great Macedonian revolutionary, (d. 1903)
1873 - Étienne Desmarteau, Canadian athlete (d. 1905)
1875 - Ludwig Prandtl, Germany, physicist (father of aerodynamics)
1875 - Raymond Moulaert, composer
1876 - Victor Jean Leonard Vreuls, composer
1881 - Kliment J Woroshilov, marshal/president USSR (1953-60)
1881 - Fernand Léger, French painter (d. 1955)
1884 - Julius Callewaert, Flemish dominican/bringing up children
1884 - Rolland Beaumont, cricketer (South African batsman in 5 tests 1912-14)
1885 - Cairine Ray Wilson, Montreal, 1st female Canadian senator (appointed)
1888 - Paul Althaus, German theologist (The Christian Truth)
1889 - Walter Catlett, SF CA, actor (Front Page, Tale of 2 Cities)
1891 - Yuri Losmann, Estonia, marathon runner (Olympic-silver 1920)
1891 - Madabhushi Ananthasayanam Ayyangar, Speaker of Lok Sabha (d: 1978).
1892 - Ugo Betti, Italian playwright
1892 - Andreu Nin, Catalan politician (d. 1937)
1892 - E. J. Pratt, Canadian poet (d. 1964)
1893 - Bernard Rogers, composer (Warrior, Marriage of Aude, Passion), born in NYC, New York
Paleoanthropologist Raymond DartPaleoanthropologist Raymond Dart (1893) 1893 - Raymond Dart, Australian paleoanthropologist (Australopithecus africanus)
1895 - Annie [Anna HM] Romein-Verschoor, Dutch historian (Erflaters)
1895 - Hanns [Johann] Rauter, German SS-lt-general/SS police chief in Neth
1895 - Nigel Bruce, Baja Mexico, British actor (Dr Watson-Sherlock Holmes)
1896 - Friedrich Glauser, writer
1896 - Friedrich Hund, German physicist (d. 1997)
1897 - Ludwig Erhard, chancellor of Germany (CDU)
1902 - Charles A Lindbergh, pilot (1st to fly solo across Atlantic), born in Detroit, Michigan
1902 - Hartley Shawcross, British lawyer and politician (d. 2003)
1903 - Alexander Oppenheim, mathematician
1903 - Berend van den Amstel, [Bernard CED Hattink], actor (Beatrice)
1903 - Edwin Denby, Tientsin China, US dance critic/poet (Snoring in N)
Aviator Charles LindberghAviator Charles Lindbergh (1902) 1903 - Frank Howley, Hampton NY, Brigadier General (Answers for Americans)
1903 - Siro Cisilino, composer
1904 - Herman B Wiardi Beckman, Dutch politician (SDAP)/resistance fighter
1904 - MacKinlay Kantor, Webster City Iowa, novelist (Andersonville)
1904 - Predrag Milosevic, composer
1905 - Eddie Foy Jr, New Rochelle NY, actor (Eddie-Fair Exchange)
1905 - Hylda Baker, English comedy actress (d. 1986)
1906 - Clyde William Tombaugh, US, astronomer (discovered Pluto)
1906 - Dietrich Bonhoeffer, German theologist (Confessing Church)
1906 - Primo Carnera, Italian boxer (champ-1933)
1908 - Emmanuel "Manny" Klein, trumpeter
1908 - Gordon Fraser, Lawrence Mass, newscaster (All Star News)
1909 - Kenneth W Howell, English Anglican bishop (Chile/Bolivia/Peru)
1909 - Robert Coote, actor (Timmy-Rogues, Theodore-Nero Wolfe), born in London, England
1910 - Alfred Mendelsohn, composer
1910 - Uys Krige, South African playwright/novelist (Orphan of the Desert)
Golfer Byron NelsonGolfer Byron Nelson (1912) 1912 - Byron Nelson, Fort Worth Tx, PGA golfer (won 19 tournaments in 1945)
1912 - Erich Leinsdorf, Austrian-born American conductor, born in Vienna, Austria (d. 1993)
1912 - James Craig, Nashville TN, actor (Devil & Daniel Webster, Cyclops)
1912 - Ola Skjåk Bræk, Norwegian politician (d. 1999)
1912 - Louis-Albert Cardinal Vachon, archbishop of Quebec (d. 2006)
1913 - Rosa Parks, Tuskegee Alabama, American civil rights activist (bus protestor)
1914 - Alfred Andersch, German writer (Red Head)
1914 - Ida Lupino, actress (Adventures of Sherlock Holmes), born in London, England
1915 - William Talman, actor (Crashout, Hamilton-Perry Mason), born in Detroit, Michigan
Civil Rights Activist Rosa ParksCivil Rights Activist Rosa Parks (1913) 1915 - Ray Evans, American songwriter with Jay Livingston (d. 2007)
1916 - Basil Hembry, farmer/campaigner
1916 - Colin Morris, playwright/documentary filmmaker
1916 - David Vassall Cox, composer
1916 - Gavin Buchanan Ewart, English poet (Pleasures of the Flesh)
1916 - Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha, 41st master of the Oveyssi-Shahmaghsoudi Sufi Order (d. 1980)
1917 - Aga Yahya Khan, Pakistan military/politician
1918 - Ida Lupino, actress screenwriter director/producer (Jennifer)

Famous Weddings

Weddings 1 - 6 of 6

1875 - Princess Louise of Belgium marries Prince Philip von Saksen-Coburg-Gotha in Belgium
Jazz Musician Louis ArmstrongJazz Musician Louis Armstrong (1924) 1924 - Jazz musician Louis Armstrong (22) weds pianist Lil Armstrong (26)
1939 - Singer Frank Sinatra (23) marries 1st wife Nancy Barbato
1941 - Actress Vera-Ellen (19) weds fellow dancer Robert Hightower
2006 - Daughter of June Carter country singer Carlene Carter (50) weds Joe Brown began at Cinnamon Hill in Jamaica
2006 - 2004 Summer Olympics badminton player gold medalist Taufik Hidayat (24) weds Armi Dianti Gumelar at Hotel Mulia Senayan in Jakarta

Famous Divorces

Divorces 1 - 1 of 1

Boxing Champ George ForemanBoxing Champ George Foreman (1985) 1985 - Professional boxer George Foreman (35) divorces Andrea Skeete after almost 3 years of marriage

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 114

Roman Emperor Septimius SeverusRoman Emperor Septimius Severus (211) 211 - Lucius Septimius Severus, Emperor of Rome (193-211), dies at 64
708 - Sisinnius, Greek-Syrian pope (708, 20 days), dies
856 - Hrabanus Maurus, East France, archbishop of Mainz, dies
869 - Saint Cyril, Greek missionary to the Slavs (b. 827)
1189 - Gilbert of Sempringham, English monastery founder/saint, dies
1222 - Willem I, earl of Holland (1203-22), dies
1503 - Queen Elizabeth, consort of Henry VII of England, dies
1505 - Joan of Valois, Queen of France/saint, dies at 40
1508 - Conrad Celtes, German humanist scholar (b. 1459)
1553 - Caspar Othmayr, composer, dies at 37
1590 - Gioseffo Zarlino, composer, dies at 73
1615 - Dom Justo Takayama, Japanese warlord (b. 1552)
1615 - Giovanni Battista della Porta, Italian scholar, polymath and child prodogy (b. 1535)
1617 - Louis Elsevier, Dutch publisher, dies at about 76
1640 - Hendrick C Vroom, Dutch seascape painter, dies
1694 - Nataliya Kyrillovna Naryshkina, Tsaritsa of Russia (b. 1651)
1714 - Duke of Berry, French King Louis XIV's grandson, dies
1746 - Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), dies at 46
1774 - Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician and geographer (b. 1701)
1781 - Josef Myslivecek, composer, dies at 43
1781 - Willem Crul, admiral (West-Indies), dies in battle at 59
1799 - Étienne-Louis Boullée, French architect (b. 1728)
1815 - Geert Reinders, Dutch cattle breeder/inoculation proponent, dies at 77
1815 - Jacob van Strij, Dutch cartoonist/graphic artist, dies at 58
1816 - Meingosus Gaelle, composer, dies at 63
1834 - Amelie Julia Candielle, composer, dies at 66
1844 - Willem de Clerq, Dutch merchant/literary, dies at 49
1854 - Carl Ludwig Cornelius Westenholz, composer, dies at 66
1869 - Johan M Dautzenberg, Flemish author/novelist (Future), dies at 60
Squatter James DonnellySquatter James Donnelly (1880) 1880 - James Donnelly, patriarch of the "Black Donnellys", murdered in the Black Donnelly massacre at 63
1894 - Antoine J "Adolphe" Sax, instrument maker (saxophone), dies at 79
1895 - Faustina Hasse Hodges, composer, dies at 71
1896 - Henry David Leslie, composer, dies at 73
1905 - Louis-Ernest Barrias, French sculptor (b. 1841)
1911 - Peter A "Piet" Cronje, South Africa Boer general, dies at about 75
1921 - Xavier Mellery, Belgian painter/illustrator, dies at 75
1927 - Thomas Linnemann Laub, composer, dies at 74
1928 - Hendrik A Lorentz, physicist (L transformation-Nobel 1902), dies at 74
1933 - Archibald Sayce, English educator (b. 1846)
1936 - Wilhelm Gustloff, German leader of the Swiss Nazi party (b. 1895)
1939 - Edward Sapir, US linguist/cultural antropologist (indian), dies at 55
1939 - Henri W A Deterding, Dutch oil magnate (Royal Oil, Shell), dies at 72
1940 - Nikolai Yezhov, Head of Soviet NKVD (b. 1895)
1941 - Johann Peter Kirsch, Luxembourg church historian, dies at 79
1943 - Frank Calder, 1st NHL president, dies
1944 - Yvette Guilbert, French singer and actress (b. 1867)
1944 - Arsen Kotsoyev, Russian writer (b. 1872)
1946 - Margarete Boie, writer, dies
1953 - Alexander Loudon, Dutch diplomat (League of Nations), dies at 60
1954 - Vaclav Vackar, composer, dies at 72
1956 - Leendert A Donker, Dutch soc dem party-minister of Justice, dies at 56
1956 - Peder Gram, composer, dies at 74
1957 - Joseph Hardaway, creator of Bugs Bunny, dies at 66
1957 - Miguel Covarrubias, Mexican illustrator, dies
1958 - Frederik de Merode, Belgian prince, dies at 46
1959 - Una O'Connor, actress (Banjo, Invisible Man), dies at 78
1964 - Siegfried T Bok, neurobiologist/anatomist (Cybernetica), dies at 71
1965 - U C Greyhound, champion trotter (horse), dies at 33
1966 - Gilbert H Grosvenor, president Natl Geographic Society, dies at 90
1967 - Albert Orsborn, 6th General of The Salvation Army (b. 1886)
1968 - Ed Baker, actor (Keystone Kops), dies of emphysema at 70
1968 - Gerard den Brabander, [Jan G Jofriet], poet (Nothing New), dies at 67
1968 - Neal Cassady, American writer (b. 1926)
1974 - Mihail Andricu, composer, dies at 79
1974 - Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian physicist (b. 1894)
Musician Louis JordanMusician Louis Jordan (1975) 1975 - Louis Jordan, American musician (b. 1908)
1975 - Howard Hill, American archer (b. 1899)
1977 - Brett Halliday, American writer (b. 1904)
1978 - Bergen Evans, English professor ($64,000 Question), dies at 73
1982 - Sue Carol, actress (She's My Weakness), dies at 73 of a heart attack
1982 - Alex Harvey, Scottish musician (b. 1935)
1982 - Georg Konrad Morgen, German judge (b. 1909)
1983 - Jim Ameche, actor (Festival of Stars), dies at 68
1983 - Karen Carpenter, rock drummer (Carpenters), dies of anorexia at 32
1983 - Reginald Denham, director/writer (Death at BC House), dies at 89
1987 - Liberace, pianist (Liberace Show, Evil Chandell-Batman), dies at 67
1987 - Carl Rogers, American psychologist (b. 1902)
1989 - Kenneth "Jethro" Burns, country singer (Homer & Jethro), dies at 69
1990 - Whipper Billy Watson, Canadian professional wrestler (b. 1917)
Pianist LiberacePianist Liberace (1987) 1991 - Bob Leslie, actor (Cinderella, Mako: Jaws of Death), dies at 64
1992 - Fred Slyter, dialogue coach, dies after long illness at 56
1992 - John Dehner, actor (Apache, Cowboy, Boys from Brazil), dies at 76
1994 - Han Jansen, Dutch painter, dies at 62
1994 - Harold Schneider, US producer (5 Easy Pieces, War Games), dies at 55
1994 - Jan Veldkamp, Dutch geophysicist/director (KNMI), dies at 84
1994 - Justinus Darmojuwono, Indonesian archbishop/cardinal, dies at 79
1995 - Betty Davis, British dance teacher of Dame Margot Fonteyn, dies
1995 - Patricia Highsmith, [Mary Patricia Plangman], US/Swiss, dies at 74
1995 - Roel Wiersma, Dutch soccer star (PSV), dies at 62
1997 - James Friell, political cartoonist, dies at 84
2000 - Carl Albert, American politician, 54th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives (b. 1908)
2000 - Doris Coley, American singer (Shirelles) (b. 1941)
2000 - Phil Tonken, American radio and television announcer (b. 1919)
2001 - J. J. Johnson, American jazz trombonist and composer (b. 1924)
2001 - Iannis Xenakis, Greek composer and architect (b. 1922)
2002 - George Nader, American film and television actor (b. 1921)
2003 - Charlie Biddle, Canadian jazz bassist (b. 1926)
2003 - Benyoucef Ben Khedda, Algerian politician (b. 1920)
2003 - André Noyelle, Belgian cyclist (b. 1931)
Writer Betty FriedanWriter Betty Friedan (2006) 2006 - Betty Friedan, American writer and feminist, dies of congestive heart failure at 85

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