This Day in History for 2nd October

Historical Events

Events 1 - 100 of 209

939 - Battle at Andernach: King Otto & Hermann of Zwaben beat Eberhard of France & Giselbert of Lutherans
976 - Hisham II appointed kalief of Cordoba
1134 - Storm flood ravages Zeeland county
1187 - Sultan Saladin captures Jerusalem from Crusaders
1263 - The battle of Largs fought between Norwegians and Scots.
1492 - King Henry VII of England invades France
1518 - English cardinal Thomas Wolsey makes European plan
1535 - Jacques Cartier discovers Mount Royal (Montreal)
1540 - Venice/Turkey signs peace
1552 - Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible.
1572 - Spanish army occupies/plunders/destroys Mechelen
1586 - Battle at Zutphen: English-Dutch army
1608 - Hans Lippershey applies for patent for first known early telescope in the Netherlands
1614 - French King Louis XIII declared an adult at 13
Russian Tsar Ivan the TerribleRussian Tsar Ivan the Terrible 1656 - British north American colony of Connecticut passes law against Quakers
1700 - Spanish king Carlos II appoints Philip van Anjou, heir to throne
1760 - Russian/Austrian army evacuates Berlin [NS=10/13]
1787 - Maagden House opens in Amsterdam
1789 - George Washington transmits the proposed Constitutional amendments (The United States Bill of Rights) to the States for ratification.
1792 - Baptist Missionary Society forms in London
1795 - Tula (leader slave uprising) sentence to death in Curacao
1799 - Duke of York & Russians capture Alkmaar in Netherlands
First US President George WashingtonFirst US President George Washington 1804 - Britain mobilizes to protect against French invasion
1833 - Charles Darwin rides through Corunda to Santa Fe Argentina
1833 - NY Anti-Slavery Society organized
1835 - Battle of Gonzales fought between Texan settlers and Mexican forces. First engagement of the Texas revolution
1836 - Darwin returns to England aboard HMS Beagle (after 5 years)
1851 - The pasilalinic-sympathetic compass is demonstrated but proves to be a fake.
1853 - Austrian law forbids Jews from owning land
1861 - Former US VP John C Breckinridge flees Kentucky
1864 - Battle of Saltville, VA
1866 - J Osterhoudt patents tin can with key opener
Naturalist Charles DarwinNaturalist Charles Darwin 1870 - Italy annexes Rome & Papal States; Rome made Italian capital
1871 - Brigham Young, mormon leader, arrested for bigamy
1872 - Morgan State University founded
1879 - Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Musgrave Ritual" (BG)
1889 - 1st Pan American conference (Washington DC)
1889 - In Colorado, Nicholas Creede strikes it rich in silver during the last great silver boom of the American Old West.
1895 - 1st cartoon comic strip is printed in a newspaper
1899 - Orange Free state mobilizes
1901 - First Royal Naval submarine launched at Barrow
1906 - Tommy Burns KOs Jim Burns in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
Boxer and World Heavyweight Champion Tommy BurnsBoxer and World Heavyweight Champion Tommy Burns 1907 - Phillies Eddie Grant goes 7 for 7 in a doubleheader vs Giants
1908 - Addie Joss perfect game stops Ed Walsh 1-0 who won 40 in a row
1909 - 1st rugby match (Twickenham)
1910 - 1st 2 aircraft collision (Milan Italy)
1910 - Henry Wijnmalen flies to 2,800m altitude (world record)
1912 - Gopal Krishna Gokhale, at invitation of Gandhi, arrives in South Africa on a 26-day tour; he also visits Tolstoy Farm
1913 - Phillies beat NY Giants 2 games out of 3 in a tripleheader
1916 - Grover Cleveland Alexander records his 16th shutout of year
1916 - San Diego Zoo founded
Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma GandhiPacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi 1919 - 1st edition "Volkskrant" (People's newspaper) published in Neth
1919 - US President Woodrow Wilson has a stroke, leaving him partially paralyzed
1920 - Only tripleheader of century (Reds win 13-4, 7-3 then Pirates win 6-0)
1921 - NY Yankee Babe Ruth hits then record 59th HR
1923 - British occuping army leaves Constantinople
1923 - Harry Heilmann goes 2-for-2, sit out rest of season, except for a pinch single on final day, hitting .403
1924 - League of Nations approves protocols of Geneva
1926 - Bert Gibb of Hamilton Tigers kicks 9 singles in a game
1928 - The "Prelature of the Holy Cross and the Work of God", commonly known as Opus Dei, was founded by Saint Josemaría Escrivá.
Baseball Legend Babe RuthBaseball Legend Babe Ruth 1931 - Pope Pius XI encyclical On economic crisis
1932 - NY Yankees sweep Chicago Cubs in 29th World Series
1932 - Washington Redskins (as Boston Braves) play 1st NFL game, lose 14-0
1933 - Eugene O'Neill's comedy "Ah, Wilderness" premieres in NYC
1935 - Mussolini's Italian army attacks Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
1935 - NY Hayden Planetarium, 4th in US, opens
1936 - 1st alcohol power plant forms, Atchison, Kansas
1936 - Amsterdam's Calvinist Churches reject nazism
1936 - French franc devalued
1936 - NY Yankees score World Series record 18 runs, beating Giants 18-4
Italian Dictator Benito MussoliniItalian Dictator Benito Mussolini 1936 - Tony Lazzeri becomes 1st Yank to hit a World Series grand slam
1937 - FDR visits Grand Coulee Dam construction site in Washington State
1938 - Indian Bob Feller strikes out record 18 Tigers (Chester Laabs 5 times)
1939 - Birdbaths installed in Union Square, SF
1940 - 17 German aircrafts shot down above England
1940 - British Council receives Royal Charter
1940 - British liner Empress loaded with refugees for Canada, sunk
1941 - 6 Paris synagogues are bombed by Gestapo
1941 - Germans launch attack on Moscow
1942 - "Queen Mary" slices cruiser "Curacao" in half, killing 338
32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt32nd US President Franklin D. Roosevelt 1943 - Japanse troops leave Kolombangara, Solomon Island
1943 - Yankees sweep 14th doubleheader of year, beating Browns, 5-1 & 7-6
1944 - Nazis crush Warsaw Uprising killing 250,000 people
1944 - US B-17's drops pamphlets on Walcheren
1946 - 1st network soap opera-Faraway Hill-Dumont
1947 - "Music in My Heart" opens at Adelphi Theater NYC for 124 performances
1947 - Revised International Telecommunication Convention adopted
1947 - Yankee Yogi Berra becomes 1st to pinch hit a World Series homer
1948 - "Finian's Rainbow" closes at 46th St Theater NYC after 725 perfs
MLB Catcher and Manager Yogi BerraMLB Catcher and Manager Yogi Berra 1949 - St Louis Browns use 9 pitchers, lose to Whites Sox 4-3
1949 - USSR recognizes People's Republic of China
1949 - Yanks & Red Sox, tied for 1st place, play final game of season. Yanks win 5-3 & clinch pennant #16
1950 - 1st strip of Charlie Brown, "Li'l Folks", later "Peanuts", by Charles M. Schulz published in 9 papers
1950 - Red Sox Dom DiMaggio leads AL with only 15 stolen bases
1950 - Bob Shaw of Chicago Cardinals sets NFL record with 5 TD receptions
1950 - Chic Cards Jim Hardy passes for 6 touchdowns vs Balt Colts (55-13)
1951 - 1st Netherland TV broadcast (Toverspiegel)
1951 - Dodgers beat Giants 10-0, in 2nd game of play-offs
1953 - "Comedy in Music (Victor Borge)" opens at John Golden NYC for 849 perf
Cartoonist Charles M. SchulzCartoonist Charles M. Schulz 1953 - Dodger Carl Erskine strikes out 14 Yankees in World Series

Famous Birthdays

Birthdays 1 - 100 of 250

1452 - King Richard III, of England (1483-85)
1470 - Isabella of Naples, Duchess of Milan (d. 1524)
1538 - Saint Charles Borromeo, Italian cardinal (d. 1584)
1595 - Jacob Louys, Flemish engraver
1616 - A Gryphius, writer
1644 - François-Timoléon de Choisy, French writer (d. 1724)
1646 - Guillaume Poitevin, composer
1704 - Frantisek Ignac Antonin Tuma, composer
1722 - Leopold Widhalm, Austrian luthier (d. 1776)
1737 - Franz Schneider, composer
1752 - Samuel Story, Dutch admiral (Battle at Kamperduin)
1756 - Jacob van Strij, Dutch cartoonist/graphic artist
1756 - Josef Jawurek, composer
1768 - William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, British general and politician (d. 1854)
1792 - Philip Cipriani Hambley Potter, pianist/composer
Rebel Slave Nat TurnerRebel Slave Nat Turner (1800) 1800 - Nat Turner, Southhampton County Virginia, leader of major slave rebellion (1831)
1809 - Anton Emil Titl, composer
1817 - Gunnar Wennerberg, composer
1819 - George Washington Getty, Bvt Major General (Union Army), died in 1901
1821 - Alexander Peter "Old Straight" Stewart, Lt Gen (Confederate Army)
1822 - Joannes Kappeyne van de Coppello, Dutch Internal minister (1877-79)
1827 - Edmund Jackson Davis, Brigadier General (Union volunteers), died in 1883
1828 - Charles Floquet, French statesman (d. 1896)
1832 - Edward Burnett Tylor, English anthropologist
1832 - Julius von Sachs, botanist/naturalist
1833 - Rev. William Corby, American Catholic priest (d. 1897)
1835 - Louis A Ranvier, French anatomist/historian
1839 - Hans Thoma, painter
1847 - Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorf und Hindenburg, German president
1851 - Ferdinand Foch, France, Allied military commander and hero during WW I
1852 - William Ramsay, chemist
1857 - Marthinus T Steyn, pres of Orange-Free state (1896-1902)
1866 - Charles de Souzy Ricketts, artist
Pacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma GandhiPacifist and Spiritual Leader Mahatma Gandhi (1869) 1869 - Mahatma Gandhi [Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi], Porbandar Kathiawad India, pacifist and spiritual leader, (d. 1948)
1871 - Cordell Hull, US Sec of State (1933-44), lowered tariffs (Nobel 1945)
1871 - Martha Brookes Hutcheson, American landscape architect (d. 1959)
1873 - Pelham Warner, cricketer (England 1898-1912, later notable official)
1873 - Stephen Warfield Gambrill, U.S. Congressman for Maryland's 5th District (d. 1924)
1875 - Henry Fevrier, composer
1878 - Francois C Schlumberger, French physicist
1879 - Wallace Stevens, Reading Pa, poet (Ideas of Order)
1880 - George Alexander Russell, composer
1881 - Fred Barlow, composer
1882 - Boris Shaposhnikov, Russian military commander (d. 1945)
1885 - Ruth Bryan Rohde, US, (Rep), minister to Denmark
1886 - Pieter "Pierre" Balledux, stage manager/Dutch resistance fighter
Comedian Groucho MarxComedian Groucho Marx (1890) 1890 - Groucho Marx, [Julius], NYC, comedian (Marx Bros, You Bet Your Life)
1891 - H V Porter, basketball pioneer, created fan shape backboard
1893 - Leroy B Shield, US pianist/producer/composer (Laurel & Hardy)
1895 - Bud Abbott, Asbury Pk NJ, comedian (Abbott & Costello)
1895 - Louis Lebeer, Dutch art historian
1896 - Fjodor I Panfjorov, Russian author (Volga) [OS=Sep 20]
1896 - Fritz Eberhard, [Hellmut Rauschenplat], W-German lawyer/resistor (Law)
1896 - Liaqat Ali Khan, Pakistan's first Prime Minister (d. 1951)
Famous Clown Coco the ClownFamous Clown Coco the Clown (1900) 1900 - Coco the Clown [Nicolai Poliakoff], Dvinsk, Famous Russian clown
1901 - Christopher Clarkson, test Pilot
1901 - [Ignatius] Roy [D] Campbell, South African poet (Flowering Rifle)
1901 - Charles Stark Draper, Windsor Missouri, American Scientist and Engineer who headed the team that invented the Apollo Guidance Computer and inertial navigation technology for aircraft, space vehicles, and submarines
1902 - Dick Ket, Dutch painter/cartoonist
1902 - Leopold Figl, premier of Austria
1904 - Dermot Boyle, marshal (RAF)
1904 - Godfrey Baseley, radio executive
1904 - Shi Lal Bahadur Shastri, India premier (1964-66)
Writer Graham GreeneWriter Graham Greene (1904) 1904 - [Henry] Graham Greene, England, prolific novelist (Brighton Rock)
1906 - John Humphreys Whitfield, scholar of Italian language & literature
1907 - Alexander Robertus, organic chemist
1907 - Lord Todd, chemist
1907 - William Marshall, producer/director/actor/singer (Blackmail)
1911 - Stuart Rose, designer (British Post Office)
1911 - Jack Finney, American author (d. 1995)
1912 - Eric Wilson, VC/British Lt Col
1913 - Vivian Ridler, printer (Oxford University)
1913 - Karl Miller, German footballer (d. 1967)
1914 - Albe Vidakovic, composer
1914 - Bengt Viktor Johansson, composer
1914 - Charles Drake, Bayside NYC, actor (Air Force, Glenn Miller Story)
1914 - Jack Parsons, American rocket scientist, author, and occultist (d. 1952)
1914 - Bernarr Rainbow, historian of music education, organist, and choir master (d.1998)
1915 - Robert Russell "Chubby" Wise, musician
1917 - Francis Jackson, organist & master of Music/York minister
1917 - William Marshall, Chicago IL, band leader (Pennsylvanians)
1917 - Charles Drake, American actor (d. 1994)
1917 - Christian de Duve, Thames Ditton, Surrey, cytologist and biochemist (Nobel, 1974), (d. 2013)
1919 - Geoffrey Luttrell, Lord-Lt of Somerset
1919 - Shirley Clarke, film director
1920 - William Cramond, psychiatrist/vice-chancellor (Stirling University)
1921 - A Scott Crossfield, US Test pilot (XS-1)
1921 - Robert Runcie, [Kennedy], Liverpool England, Archbishop of Canterbury
1922 - Otmar Macha, composer
1922 - Thomas T Nkobi, S Afr ANC-leader (Alexandra-bus boycott 1957)
1922 - Wolfhart U Pannenberg, German theologist (Gingham Girl)
1923 - Jack Dellal, English immovables-goedbezitter/multi-millionaire, (d. 2012)
1924 - Sam Wainwright, deputy chairman (British Post Office)
1925 - Alois Pinos, composer
1925 - Brian Dilton, British lord justice of appeal
1926 - Jan Morris, travel writer (Among the Cities, Hong Kong, Journeys)
1928 - Anthony Tippett, British chief of Fleet Support
1928 - Clay Felker, St Louis, journalist (NY Herald Tribune, Esquire)
1928 - George Emmett McFarland, Dallas, act (Spanky-Our Gang/Little Rascals)
1928 - James Porter, CEO (Commonwealth Institute)

Famous Weddings

Weddings 1 - 11 of 11

1900 - Belgium crown prince Albert von Saksen-Coburg weds Elisabeth of Bayern
1909 - American Playwright Eugene O'Neill (20) marries 1st wife Kathleen Jenkins
1955 - Actress Joyce Randolph marries publisher Richard Charles
1970 - Scottish singer Donovan (24) weds Linda Lawrence at Windsor Registry Office
Actor Christopher PlummerActor Christopher Plummer (1970) 1970 - Actor Christopher Plummer (40) weds actress Elaine Taylor (26) in Montreal, Quebec
1993 - Spike Lee weds Tonya Lewis
1999 - "Matchbox Twenty" lead singer Rob Thomas (27) weds model Marisol Maldonado in Santa Ynez, California
2004 - "Piano Man" singer-songwriter Billy Joel (55) weds television food critic and chef Katie Lee (23) at 15-acre waterfront estate in Centre Island, New York
2004 - "Married ... With Children" actress Katey Sagal (50) weds "The Shield" writer Kurt Sutter (42) in Los Feliz, California
2005 - Former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko's daughter Evhenya Tymoshenko weds "Death Valley Screamers" musician Sean Carr at 11th century Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev, Ukraine
Actor & Writer Seth RogenActor & Writer Seth Rogen (2011) 2011 - Canadian stand-up comedian and actor Seth Rogen (30) weds screenwriter Lauren Miller at Kunde Family Estate in Sonoma, California

Famous Divorces

Divorces 1 - 1 of 1

Jazz Musician Louis ArmstrongJazz Musician Louis Armstrong (1942) 1942 - Jazz musician Louis Armstrong (41) divorces Alpha Smith after 4 years of marriage

Famous Deaths

Deaths 1 - 100 of 113

472 - Olybrius, emperor of Westromeinse republic (472), dies
939 - Gilbert (Giselbert), Duke of Lorraine drowns trying to cross the Rhine at about 49
1113 - Mawdoed, Selchuk emir/governor of Mosul, dies
1264 - Urbanus IV, [Jacques Pantaleon], French Pope (1261-64), dies
1517 - John Murmelius, humanist/theory/school book writer, dies at about 37
1559 - Jacquet of Mantua, French composer (b. 1483)
1564 - Andreas Vesalius, [Andries of Wesel], Flemish anatomist, dies at 49
1588 - Bernardino Telesio, Italian philosopher (Rerum in Child), dies
1617 - Isaac Oliver, miniature painter, dies
1626 - Diego Sarmiento de Acuña, conde de Gondomar, Spanish diplomat (b. 1567)
1629 - Pierre the Barulle, French cardinal/founder (French Oratorio), dies
1629 - Antonio Cifra, Italian composer (b. 1584)
1656 - Stephan Otto, German composer, dies at 53
1678 - Wu San-kuei, gen, invited Manchus to China, dies trying to expel them
1707 - Anne Jules duke the Noailles, marshal of France (huguenot), dies at 57
1721 - Benott Audran, artist/engraver, dies
1724 - François-Timoléon de Choisy, French writer (b. 1644)
1729 - Arnold Boonen, portrait painter, dies at 60
1746 - Josiah Burchett, English Secretary of the Admiralty
1764 - William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1775 - Chiyo-ni, Japanese poet (b. 1703)
1780 - John Andre, British major, hanged by Americans (spied with B Arnold)
1782 - Charles Lee, British and U.S. general (b. 1732)
1786 - August Keppel, 1st viscount/naval commander/politican, dies
US Revolutionary Samuel AdamsUS Revolutionary Samuel Adams (1803) 1803 - Samuel Adams, US revolutionary (Boston Massacre-Tea Party) and politican, dies at 81
1804 - Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, French steam vehicle pioneer (b. 1725)
1809 - Wybo Fijnje, politician/patriot/journalist, dies at 59
1817 - Fyodor Fyodorovich Ushakov, Russian naval commander and admiral (b. 1744)
1823 - Daniel Steibelt, composer, dies at 57 [OS=Sept 20]
1842 - Jose Mariano Elizaga, composer, dies at 56
1842 - William Ellery Channing, cleric/writer, dies
1850 - Sarah Biffin/Beffin, limbless miniature painter, dies
1853 - D Francois J Arago, French astronomer/physicist (chromosome), dies
1860 - Louis Hersent, painter, dies
1863 - Justinus van de Brugghen, lawyer/minister of Justice, dies
1872 - Eberhard F Walcker, organ builder (Paulskirche Frankfurt A/M), dies
1873 - Cornelius Varley, water-color painter, dies
1905 - Jose Maria de Heredia, Cuban/French sonnet poet, dies at 62
1915 - Russell Alexander, composer, dies at 38
1916 - Benjamin Kidel, English sociologist (Social Evolution), dies at 58
1919 - Ernest Halliwell, cricketer (South African wicketkeeper 1892-1904), dies
1920 - Max Bruch, composer, dies at 82
1927 - Svante August Arrhenius, chemist, dies
1931 - Thomas Johnstone Lipton, sportsman/merchant, dies
1936 - G H Simpson-Hayward, cricketer (Eng 1910, great lob bowlers), dies
1938 - Alexandru Averescu, Romanian soldier and politician (b. 1859)
1943 - Robert Nathaniel Dett, composer, dies at 60
1944 - Rudolf Schmundt, German gen/Hitlers army adjunct, dies from injuries
1947 - Peter D. Ouspensky, Russian mathematician and philosopher (b. 1878)
1955 - O B Clarence, actor (Penn of Pensnsylvania), dies
1956 - George Bancroft, actor (Texas, Stagecoach, Little Men), dies at 74
1956 - Paul de Backer, Belgian radiologist, dies at 73
1958 - Marie Stopes, birth control pioneer, dies
1960 - Jaroslav Doubrava, composer, dies at 51
1961 - Reggie Spooner, cricketer (England centurion v South Africa 1912), dies
1962 - Frank Lovejoy, actor (Man Against Crime, Meet McGraw), dies at 48
1962 - Boris Y. Bukreev, Russian mathematician (b. 1859)
1965 - [John] Selwyn (Brooke) Lloyd, British statesman, dies
1967 - Albertina Rasch, ballerina/choreographer, dies at 76
Painter and Sculptor Marcel DuchampPainter and Sculptor Marcel Duchamp (1968) 1968 - Marcel Duchamp, French painter and sculptor (Nude Descending a Staircase), dies at 81
1969 - Katharine Susannah Prichard, novelist (Black Opal), dies at 85
1970 - Alfred Julius Swan, composer, dies at 79
1970 - Anders Bo Leif Linde, composer, dies at 37
1971 - Bola de Nieve, Cuban singer, pianist, and songwriter (b. 1911)
1973 - Paavo "Flying Finn" Nurmi, who won 6 Olympic gold medals, dies at 76
1973 - Paul Hartman, actor (Bert-Petticoat Junction), dies at 84
1974 - Ina Seidel, writer, dies at 89
1975 - Wade Crosby, actor (Sign of Wolf, Tales of Robin Hood), dies at 70
Runner nicknamed the Runner nicknamed the "Flying Finn" Paavo Nurmi (1973) 1975 - Kumaraswami Kamaraj, Indian political leader, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu (b. 1903)
1980 - Valentin Stepanovich Varlamov, Russian cosmonaut, dies at 46
1981 - Hazel Scott, Trinidadian singer/pianist, dies at 63
1981 - Harry Golden, American journalist (b. 1902)
1982 - William Bernbach, advertising magnate, dies at 71
1983 - Gerald Strang, Canadian composer, dies at 75
1985 - George Savalas, actor (Kojak), dies at 58
1985 - Rock Hudson, actor (MacMillian & Wife), dies of AIDS at 59
1985 - Sidney Clute, actor (Lou Grant, Cagney & Lacey), dies at 69
1987 - Madeleine Carroll, actress (39 Steps, Secret Agent), dies at 81
1987 - Peter Brian Medawar, medical scientist, dies
1988 - Alec Issigonis, Greek-British car designer, developer of the Mini (b. 1906)
1989 - Liesbeth Ribbius Peletier, Neth's 1st female advisor of State, dies
1991 - Dimitrios I, patriarch/primus interparis orthodox Christians, dies
1991 - Jan H Christianse, political chairman (CDA), dies
1993 - Henry Ringling North, circus owner (Ringling Bros Circus), dies at 83
1994 - Faith Davis, oldest triplets (Charity & Hope survive), dies at 95
1994 - Harriet Nelson, American actress, dies of congestive heart failure at 80
1994 - Ronald James Herron, architect, dies at 64
1995 - Elizabeth Jane Lloyd, artist/teacher, dies at 67
1995 - Norman Ewart Thurston, musician, dies at 74
1996 - Andrey Lukanov, PM of Bulgaria (1990), assassinated at 58
1996 - Frideswide Frances Emma Knight, musician/socialist, dies at 85
1996 - Ivan Mark Waller, mountaineer, dies at 89
1996 - Robert Bourassa, PM of province of Quebec (1970-76, 85-93), dies at 63
1996 - Ronald John Bilsland Colville, businessman, dies at 79
1996 - Sybil Marion Rosenfeld, theatre historian, dies at 93
1998 - Gene Autry, American singer, actor, and entrepreneur (b. 1907)
1998 - Olivier Gendebien, Belgian racing driver (b. 1924)
1999 - Heinz G. Konsalik, German novelist (b. 1921)
2001 - Franz Biebl, German composer (b. 1906)
2002 - Heinz von Foerster, Austrian-born physicist and philosopher (b. 1911)

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