European History

Wilhelm I proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, France

Through ancient, medieval and modern times the people of Europe have alternatively fought and co-operated with each other, to form or resist some of the world's greatest known empires. It took the horrors of two world wars for Europeans to finally set aside their differences and to choose peacefully coexistence on a more permanent basis. As Yugoslavia and Kosovo show however this process is far from complete and prone to go into reverse in times of political or economic stress.

Was Bismarck the key factor in the unification of Germany?

Herr Otto Von Bismarcks iron-man image and the unique personality was the crucial factor in the unification of Germany. His skill as a diplomat was unrivalled during his reign as chancellor of Prussia and Germany.....

Bismarck and the Unification of Germany
(Part 1)

Bismarck and the Unification of Germany
(Part 2)

Map of Yugoslavia

The Violent Breakup of Yugoslavia

The numerous ethnic groups that comprised Yugoslavia held historical animosities towards each other stretching back in some cases hundreds of years. Yet these animosities were put aside after World War Two and under Tito's grip the nation achieved an internal peace that could not last.

The Breakup of Yugoslavia (Part 1)
The Breakup of Yugoslavia (Part 2)
The Breakup of Yugoslavia (Bibliography)


Yugoslav Army T-55 tank during Kosovo War

Social Construction of Political Realities via Mass Media in the Kosovo War

How many people can place Kosovo on a map? Compare this to a few years ago. The difference between then and now is that the mass media learned of the situation and turned Kosovo into a politically important part of the world.

Social Construction in the Kosovo War (Part 1)
Social Construction in the Kosovo War (Part 2)
Social Construction in the Kosovo War (Bibliography)


Today in European History

Austria - Belgium - Bosnia and Herzegovina - Croatia
Czech Republic - Denmark - Estonia - Finland - France - Germany
Greece - Hungary - Iceland - Ireland - Italy - Kosovo - Liechtenstein
Lithuania - Luxembourg - Macedonia - Moldova - Montenegro
Netherlands - Norway - Poland - Portugal - Romania - San Marino
Serbia - Slovakia - Slovenia - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Turkey - Ukraine - United Kingdom